# Mega Merge Resource List 🐼 This is a collection of resources on the upcoming Ethereum Merge: a transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake that will make the chain more secure and sustainable. The links below will help you understand the basics, dive deep into the technicals, and directly participate in #TestingTheMerge. ![](https://storage.googleapis.com/ethereum-hackmd/upload_786c5ba36153c59c94bba242eb906ef7.png) ## What is The Merge? ### High level overviews - [Merge roadmap FAQs](https://github.com/timbeiko/eth-roadmap-faq) - Tim Beiko (April 2022) - [Thread of changes to expect](https://twitter.com/trent_vanepps/status/1508478499325202435) - Trent Van Epps (March 2022) - [The Merge Overview](https://ethereum.org/en/upgrades/merge/) - ethereum.org - [How the Merge has evolved](https://tim.mirror.xyz/CHQtTJb1NDxCK41JpULL-zAJe7YOtw-m4UDw6KDju6c) - Tim Beiko (Sept 2021) Merge Prehistory, Current and Future Roadmap - FAQs on ethmerge.com - community curated questions - [Consensys knowledge base about The Merge](https://consensys.net/knowledge-base/the-merge/) - [Video series on the Merge](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrJWE9beMSg) - ConsenSys (April 2022) - [Ethereum’s Transition to Proof of Stake and Network Updates](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LdAlzFPaJpQ) - Tim Beiko for EEA, (March 2022) ### Technical Specifications * [Consensus Layer (CL) specs](https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/tree/dev/specs/bellatrix) - aka the Beacon Chain or Proof of Stake, how the chain adds blocks and reaches finality * [Execution Layer (EL) specs](https://github.com/ethereum/execution-specs/blob/master/network-upgrades/mainnet-upgrades/paris.md) - aka the user layer, where applications and user accounts live * [EIP-3675](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-3675) - deep dive into the moment of transition from PoW to PoS * [Annotated Beacon Chain spec](https://github.com/ethereum/annotated-spec/blob/master/merge/beacon-chain.md) - (Oct 2021) * Kiln: [latest public testnet](https://blog.ethereum.org/2022/03/14/kiln-merge-testnet/) ## When Merge? **No specific date has been set for the Merge.** When the client teams are confident with the state of testing, this number will announced alongside releases, on the Ethereum blog, and throughout the ecosystem. - [From Merge to Mainnet](https://hackmd.io/@timbeiko/acd/https%3A%2F%2Ftim.mirror.xyz%2FPWFVaHY3Mrx7srarMmuBWya0J5kioR1l2xaH3p5APDk%3Fdisplay%3Diframe) - Tim Beiko (May 2022) - [The Merge Mainnet Readiness Checklist](github.com/ethereum/pm/blob/master/Merge/mainnet-readiness.md) - survey of things that need to be completed - Instead of using block height as the marker like in previous upgrades, the Merge will happen when a predetermined Total Terminal Difficulty (TTD, [read more](https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/pull/2462/)) is reached. - TTD represents accumulated difficulty in the network which might be influenced by the behaviour of difficulty bomb and miner activity. Here are some efforts to estimate its growth to better prepare for the Merge (these are not predictions of the Merge itself) - - Difficulty Bomb [estimation](https://medium.com/coinmonks/adventures-in-difficulty-bombing-837890476630) - TJ Rush (Oct 2021) - Difficulty Bomb [live Dune tracker](https://dune.com/yulesa/Blocks-per-Week) - Yulesa - TTD [prediction tool](https://notes.ethereum.org/@MarioHavel/predicting_ttd) - Mario Havel (May 2022) ## Testing and development * Pre-merge Execution Layer testing: * [Blockchain Tests, Transaction tests, General State Tests, Difficulty Tests](github.com/ethereum/tests) * [hive end-to-end tests](https://github.com/ethereum/hive) (consensus tests, sync tests, networking tests) * Post-merge testing: * [Hive EL+CL testnet](https://github.com/ethereum/hive/tree/master/simulators/eth2/testnet) * [Hive Engine API testing](https://github.com/ethereum/hive/tree/master/simulators/ethereum/engine) * [Consensus-specs tests](https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/tree/dev/tests) * [Kurtosis EL+CL Testnets](https://github.com/kurtosis-tech/eth2-merge-kurtosis-module) * [Shadow forking](https://etherworld.co/2022/04/20/ethereum-mainnet-shadow-forking-an-overview/) * Testing channel in [Eth R&D Discord](https://discord.gg/fwwdkt5U8K) * [Community calls](https://github.com/ethereum/pm/tree/master/Merge) on The Merge, [playlist](https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4cwHXAawZxqoLxXqZqT4hcYhoHoP6w12) * [Testing The Merge leaderboard](https://testingthemerge.notion.site/testingthemerge/Testing-the-Merge-d0af826782a34d5ca6ce31aa5e631645) ### For solo stakers / services **NOTE:** Stakers should start running a local execution layer (EL) client ahead of the Merge. Outsourcing this to third-party providers will open up stakers to slashing risk under the [Proof of Custody game](https://dankradfeist.de/ethereum/2021/09/30/proofs-of-custody.html) - Become a validator and help to secure the network: [Resources](https://ethereum.org/en/staking/) & [Staking](https://launchpad.ethereum.org/) - As a validator, make sure you are [ready for the Merge]([https:/](https://launchpad.ethereum.org/en/merge-readiness)/) - Decentralization: [Client diversity](https://clientdiversity.org/), [Pools client usage](https://pools.invis.cloud/), [Overview of staking pools](https://ethereum.org/en/staking/pools/) - Running a self-hosted node: [Avado](https://ava.do/), [DappNode](https://dappnode.io/), [Ethereum on ARM](https://ethereum-on-arm-documentation.readthedocs.io/), [Stereum](https://stereum.net/ethereum-node-setup/), [NiceNode](https://www.nicenode.xyz/) - [Spin up your own node - Ethereum.org](https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/nodes-and-clients/run-a-node/) (To be updated) ### Testnets Participating in testnets is the best way to get prepared in advance. * [Which testnets will be deprecated and maintaned](https://blog.ethereum.org/2022/06/21/testnet-deprecation/) * Merge testnets [configs](https://github.com/eth-clients/merge-testnets) * [Kiln](https://blog.ethereum.org/2022/03/14/kiln-merge-testnet/) is the latest merged testnet set to wider testing for applications, client operators, stakers * https://kiln.themerge.dev/ * [ETHStaker Kiln Guide](https://github.com/remyroy/ethstaker/blob/main/merge-devnet.md) * [How to run a node on Kiln](https://notes.ethereum.org/@launchpad/kiln) ## Post-Merge ### For developers - Testnets - [OG Council: Post-Merge Testnets](https://ethereum-magicians.org/t/og-council-post-merge-testnets/9034) - [Which Ethereum testnet will be supported after the merge (Paris/Bellatrix)?](https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/questions/128458/which-ethereum-testnet-will-be-supported-after-the-merge-paris-bellatrix/128459#128459) - [How The Merge Impacts Ethereum’s Application Layer](https://blog.ethereum.org/2021/11/29/how-the-merge-impacts-app-layer/) - Tim Beiko (Updated March 2022) - Beacon chain blocks will contain `ExecutionPayloads` - mining and ommer block header fields become irrelevant - `BLOCKHASH` is still available, but weak pseudorandomness - `DIFFICULTY` is updated & renamed to `PREVRANDAO` - read more at [EIP-4399](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-4399) - [Randomness opcode change](https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-4399) - [Optimistic sync specs](https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/blob/dev/sync/optimistic.md) - [Post-Merge Node architecture](https://tim.mirror.xyz/sR23jU02we6zXRgsF_oTUkttL83S3vyn05vJWnnp-Lc) - [MEV Boost](https://github.com/flashbots/mev-boost) ### Withdrawals - Withdrawing deposited and accumulated Ether by validators won't be enabled immediately after The Merge, but in the next upgrade: [Capella specs](https://github.com/ethereum/consensus-specs/blob/dev/specs/capella/beacon-chain.md) - [PEEPanEIP session on Withdrawals](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcL9RJBljUs) - Alex Stokes (April 2022) - [Shanghai Planning Issue](https://github.com/ethereum/pm/issues/450): the network upgrade directly after the the Merge